Exercise Physiology
Bioenergetics: Biological Energy Transformation

Bioenergetics: Biological Energy Transformation

The 1st law of thermodynamics states that energy is not produced or created but just transferred around. In other words, the body doesn’t produce any energy but simply transfers the energy derived from foods inside the body to an external environment. According to Lord Kelvin, the 2nd law of thermodynamics can be expressed as: “No...
The Roles of Enzymes and Coenzymes in Chemical Reactions

The Roles of Enzymes and Coenzymes in Chemical Reactions

Enzymes have two functions, (1) they control the speed of cellular chemical reactions and (2) they control the metabolic pathways in cells. Enzymes do not cause a reaction but they control/regulate the speed at which the reactions occur. Enzymes (which are proteins) regulate the speed of a chemical reaction by lowering the energy of activation,...
What is Protein?

What is Protein?

Most people associate protein with strength and meat with protein. So is eating tons of meat efficient in making you stronger? Not really. Meat is one good source of protein but so are eggs, milk, and grains & vegetables. Learn about protein quality and available protein sources in your diet. Amino Acids Amino means “nitrogen...
What is Fat?

What is Fat?

Fat belongs to the group of nutrients called lipids. Stored body fat is an ideal fuel source for aerobic metabolism (long duration/low-to-medium intensity exercise) since fat has the highest energy density (9kcal/g). There are three forms of lipids: Triglycerides(fats and oils): in foods, 95% of fats are triglycerides; in the body, 99% of fats are...
What is Glycogen?

What is Glycogen?

The storage form of glucose in the body is glycogen, which is a complex carbohydrate (polysaccharide) stored in animal tissue. Glycogen is being stored in the liver and in muscle tissue. During exercise, muscle cells break down glycogen stores into glucose, called glycogenolysis, which occurs not only in muscle cells but also in the liver....
Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are the ideal form of energy during anaerobic metabolism (short duration/high intensity activities; e.g. 100m sprint). At the molecular level a carbohydrate atom consists of 6 carbon (C) molecules, 12 hydrogen (H) molecules, and 6 oxygen (O) molecules; also referred to as CHO. There are three forms of carbohydrates (mono – and disaccharides are...
The Role of Nutrients in Sports: Energy Providers & Transporters

The Role of Nutrients in Sports: Energy Providers & Transporters

The body uses nutrients to grow, restore body tissue, and provide energy to perform work.  The body requires some nutrients in large quantities, called macronutrients, and other nutrients in smaller quantities, called micronutrients. Macronutrients provide energy, whereas micronutrients do not yield any energy directly but they assist in the transfer of energy (e.g. B-vitamins). Micro...