In tennis conditioning the Back Squat is a compound exercise, which focuses on improving the synergy of the neuro-muscular system, strengthening of hip extensor & knee extensor musculature, body control & coordination, flexibility as well as improving skill & balance foundation for complex movements.

Note: If the athlete has flexibility issues and/ or for teaching purposes, a stance wider than shoulder-width is warranted.


  1. Position barbell chest level on the rack; add resistance (plates) and attach safety clips
  2. Take an athletic stance; stand straight, feet are just wider than shoulder-width apart; knees slightly flexed; toes point slightly outward (10˚-20˚)
  3. Use a pronated grip (palms facing down) and place hands slightly wider than shoulder-width apart on the bar
  4. Move head underneath the barbell and position barbell superior to the spine of the scapulae (on the top shelf created by the trapezius); do not place barbell on top of the cervical spine!
  5. First flex hips (~45˚) and then knees until knees are flexed to 90˚ (or as far as possible); maintain neutral pelvic position; keep knees inside shoulders; distribute weight through the heels; maintain neutral spine position (push chest out and scapulae [shoulder blades] together; maintain neutral head position (look forward)
  6. Extend the knees and hips and return to starting position

Targeted Musculature

  • Gluteus Maximus
  • Upper Hamstring
  • Quadriceps

Recommended Exercises

This section provides exercises that can be used to improve the athlete’s performance potential.

Hamstring Flexibility

Gluteal Flexibility